Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor of Public International Law, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of International Law, Islamic Azad University of Bushehr, Bushehr, Iran

3 Economic and Private Law. Facualty of Law and Political science. Allameh Tabatabayi University. Iran. Tehran.

4 Department of Private Law, Faculty of Law & Political Science, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran.



The conflict between sovereignty over parts of the sea and the necessity of "innocent passage" concept has been the most contentious field in the law of the sea." Two hypotheses in this field have collided in the history of international law of the sea. The first hypothesis is that every human possesses the seas together. "Navigation" and other operations are also allowed for all. Under the excuse of owning the sea, no state has the right to restrict other people's use. However, the second theory says that the sea is owned by someone who controls part of it, and its use can be limited. In international law, the "innocent passage" by foreign vessels from the territorial sea of a country is widely recognized. However, in some territories, the requirements for the "innocent passage" of military vessels include the need for prior notice or the coastal state's permission. Most forces, led by the US, believe in absolute freedom of the military vessel's "innocent passage." However, most Asian countries, including Iran, assume that they can prior notification or approval for a foreign military vessel passage. This activity was often resisted in operational as well as diplomatic phases by naval forces such as the United States.



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