Document Type : Original Article


Azad university science and research branch of Tehran



Minerals in nature are one of the most valuable treasures on the earth, which due to the limitation of these resources on land and its heterogeneous distribution in different countries, has made human beings think about extracting the new resources. The limited mineral resources on land and the heterogeneous distribution of these substances in different countries have made human beings think about extracting and using the resources of other parts of the earth and even other planets. Deep-sea mineral resources can be considered as a reliable alternative to compensate for the limitations of land resources. The developed countries were more concerned with the use of these resources than others because, given the dependence of their economies on third world mineral resources, the development of offshore resources could mean the liberation of their economies from this dependence. Therefore, this part of the high seas, which has no special owner, should have been included in a regime that provides menus to all countries of the world, both developed and developing. Therefore, in political and scientific circles, the concept of the common heritage of humanity was gradually introduced, based on which activities related to mining in the deep sea. After World War II, when oceanographic research revealed huge deposits of manganese in the seabed, countries' commercial interests in the field increased. All of these matters can raise the question that to what extent the current legal systems have been able to achieve this goal? The method of this research is a descriptive-analytical study using library resources, the study of articles, and a review of environmental treaties and related internet resources. This research tries to provide a legal solution by considering the opinions of environmental experts, an executive solution about achieving new financial resources based on combined systems of environmental responsibility.


Main Subjects

A: Books
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A: Books
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C: Documents
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D: Websites:
Clarke, Chris. (2011). Update Comparative Legal Study on Environmental Liability. European Commission, 11-12. Available at :
Htpps:// study. Pdf. last access: 2/06/2011