Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing in the Exclusive Economic Zone; Legal Analysis of the International Tribunal for Law of the Sea’s Approach in Its Advisory Opinion of 2 April 2015

Document Type: Original Article

Abstract

< p>The global issue of Sustainable marine fisheries is considered as common concern to humankind. The emergence and persistence of noncompliant fisheries practices conveniently labelled ‘Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing’ (IUU fishing), is of particular concern for the international community, regional fisheries management organizations and coastal states. The International Tribunal for Law of the Sea (ITLOS) in its first full-bench Advisory Opinion in 2015 found that Arts. 62(4), 58(3), 192 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) contain obligations for a flag state to ensure that vessels flying their flags do not engage in illegal fishing in the exclusive economic zones of coastal states. By this explanation, the Advisory Opinion initially has clarified the inadequate international fisheries law regime through ITLOS interpretive approach, which this paper attempts to examine by applying an exact legal scrutiny. The framework set by the Tribunal may allow States affected by IUU fishing, to exert greater pressure on flag states, particularly flag states of convenience, that do not comply with their responsibilities under UNCLOS. This paper suggests that the regulations on IUU fishing under international law should be enhanced and revised in order to draw an appropriate solution suitable for sustainable fisheries management.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [French]

Pêche illégale, non déclarée et non réglementée dans la zone économique exclusive; Analyse juridique de l''''''''''''''''approche du Tribunal international du droit de la mer dans son avis consultatif du 2 avril 2015

Abstract [French]

< p >La question mondiale des pêches marines durables est considérée comme une préoccupation commune à l''''humanité. L’émergence et la persistance de pratiques de pêche non conformes convenablement étiquetées «pêche illégale, non déclarée et non réglementée» (pêche IUU), préoccupent particulièrement la communauté internationale, les organisations régionales de gestion des pêches et les États côtiers. Le Tribunal international du droit de la mer (ITLOS), dans son premier avis consultatif complet en 2015, a conclu que les art. 62 (4), 58 (3), 192 de la Convention des Nations Unies sur le droit de la mer (UNCLOS) contiennent des obligations pour un État du pavillon de s''''assurer que les navires battant son pavillon ne se livrent pas à la pêche illégale dans les zones économiques exclusives de États côtiers. Par cette explication, l''''avis consultatif a initialement clarifié le régime inadéquat du droit international des pêches grâce à une approche interprétative du ITLOS, que le présent document tente d''''examiner en appliquant un examen juridique précis. Le cadre établi par le Tribunal peut permettre aux États touchés par la pêche IUU d''''exercer une pression plus forte sur les États du pavillon, en particulier les États de pavillon de complaisance, qui ne respectent pas leurs responsabilités en vertu de la UNCLOS. Ce document suggère que les réglementations sur la pêche IUU en vertu du droit international devraient être améliorées et révisées afin de trouver une solution appropriée convenant à une gestion durable des pêches.

Keywords [French]

  • Pêche durable
  • Pêche IUU
  • Zone économique exclusive
  • Crimes transnationaux
  • Tribunal international du droit de la mer
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